We wrapped up yesterday’s game of “Find the Julia Set” and reviewed some other interesting properties of the Mandelbrot Set:

- “Area” Julia Sets come from “areas” in the Mandelbrot Set, and “string” Julia Sets come from “strings” in the Mandelbrot Set
- There are “veins” through the main cardioid of the Mandelbrot Set where we can watch the orbit of a single fixed point die towards a 2-, 3-, 4-, or any magnitude cycle. Along these veins, the fixed point forms spokes. Offset slightly from these veins and they become spirals
- Relatedly, there are balls off of the main cardioid for every possible cycle, and every variant of every cycle (1/5-cycles, 2/5-cycles, etc.). Imagine a circle centered on the cusp of the cardioid. Any angle rotation around that circle points straight at a ball on the edge of the cardioid, whose orbit-cycle magnitude exactly matches the fraction used to find that angle. A 120 degree rotation, representing 1/3 of a full rotation, points straight at the 3-cycle ball on the top of the Mandelbrot set, and a 240 degree rotation, 2/3 a full rotation, points straight at the 3-cycle ball on the bottom. A 72-degree rotation, 1/5 of a full, points straight at the first 5-ball. Rotations of 144, 216, or 288 degrees point straight at the second, third, and fourth 5-balls.

Our last two topics of the course: an open problem related to the connectedness of the Mandelbrot Set, and a discussion of Newton’s Method of Approximation, and its surprising connection to the Mandelbrot Set

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